Answered by Shaykh Faraz Rabbani
1. I would recommend using Taleemul Haq (available online), and Heavenly Ornaments (available online, though the Zam Zam Publications edition, available through http://www.alrashad.com, is better) as references to check up whenever something is not quite clear.
They are both very reliable in their rulings, as several of my teachers and other scholars have attested to. Don't let the relatively poor language be a barrier. They are also both designed for the lay person, and the English editions are clear. Salvation, on the other hand, is an error-ridden translation of a much more technical text...
2. The types of water simply explain the 7 most common sources of water. Tap water comes from them!
3. Used water can be used for istinja. "Not cleansing" should say: not purifying, and explained as: It cannot be used to lift a state of ritual impurity, whether minor (through wudu) or major (through ghusl).
4. As long as water can still be called "water" without a necessary qualification, then it remains water: it is pure and purifying, if it is neither filthy (najis) or used. So, a trace of soap or sulphur or rose extract would not affect the usability of water. However, if you put so much rose extract in water that is could no longer be called water without the necessary qualifier "rose," then the you could not use it for wudu or ghusl.
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